While there are numerous diseases that can affect turtles, listing 101 specific turtle diseases in a single response would be quite extensive and impractical. Instead, I can provide you with a more manageable list of some common and notable turtle diseases:

Shell Rot of turtle

Shell rot is a common condition among turtles, and it refers to the deterioration of the shell’s outer layer due to bacterial or fungal infections. It’s essential to address shell rot promptly as it can lead to more severe health issues if left untreated. Here’s a brief overview of the causes, symptoms, and treatment of shell rot in turtles:

Causes of Shell Rot:

  1. Poor Water Quality: Dirty or contaminated water can harbor bacteria and fungi that can infect the turtle’s shell.
  2. Injuries: Wounds or scratches on the shell can provide entry points for pathogens.
  3. Malnutrition: Turtles with a deficient or unbalanced diet may have weakened immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
  4. Stress: Stressful living conditions can compromise a turtle’s immune system, making them more vulnerable to diseases.

Symptoms of Shell Rot:

  1. Soft or Mushy Shell Spots: Affected areas of the shell may become soft or spongy to the touch.
  2. Discoloration: Look for dark or discolored patches on the shell, which may be brown, green, or black.
  3. Foul Odor: Infected shells may emit a foul smell due to the presence of bacteria or fungi.
  4. Peeling or Flaking: The outer layer of the shell may peel or flake off in advanced cases.
  5. Redness or Inflammation: Inflamed areas may appear reddish or swollen.

Treatment of Shell Rot:

  1. Isolation: If you notice shell rot symptoms, isolate the affected turtle from other tank mates to prevent the spread of infection.
  2. Clean and Dry Environment: Ensure the turtle’s enclosure is clean, and provide a dry basking area for the turtle to promote healing.
  3. Antiseptic Solutions: Gently clean the infected areas of the shell with an antiseptic solution or mild betadine/water mix (diluted to a light tea color).
  4. Topical Ointments: After cleaning, apply a topical antibiotic or antifungal ointment to the affected areas. Be sure to use products specifically designed for turtles and follow the veterinarian’s instructions.
  5. Improve Diet: Ensure the turtle is receiving a balanced and nutritious diet to support its immune system and overall health.
  6. Veterinary Care: Seek professional advice from a reptile veterinarian who can properly diagnose the condition and prescribe appropriate treatments. They may also perform a culture and sensitivity test to identify the specific bacteria or fungi causing the infection.


  1. Maintain a clean and well-filtered habitat for the turtle with regular water changes.
  2. Provide a basking area with a heat lamp to help the turtle dry out properly after swimming.
  3. Ensure the turtle’s diet includes a variety of foods rich in calcium and other essential nutrients.
  4. Regular health checks and monitoring of the turtle’s behavior and shell condition can help detect any issues early on.

Respiratory Infections of Turtle

Respiratory infections in turtles, also known as upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), are a common health issue among these reptiles. They can be caused by various factors, and if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications. Here’s an overview of the causes, symptoms, and treatment of respiratory infections in turtles:


  1. Poor Environmental Conditions: Inadequate temperature, humidity, or ventilation in the turtle’s enclosure can stress their immune system and make them susceptible to respiratory infections.
  2. Improper Diet: Nutritional deficiencies can weaken the turtle’s immune system, making them more prone to infections.
  3. Bacterial or Fungal Infections: Pathogenic bacteria or fungi can infect the respiratory system of turtles, leading to respiratory issues.
  4. Stress: Environmental stress, overcrowding, or improper handling can increase the turtle’s vulnerability to respiratory infections.
  5. Poor Water Quality: Turtles that spend a significant amount of time in water require clean and properly maintained aquatic environments to avoid infections.


  1. Labored Breathing: Noticeable difficulty in breathing, including rapid or shallow breaths.
  2. Open-Mouth Breathing: Turtles may keep their mouths open, showing signs of distress.
  3. Nasal Discharge: Presence of mucus or fluid coming from the nostrils.
  4. Wheezing or Crackling Sounds: Audible noise when the turtle breathes.
  5. Lethargy: Unusual lack of activity or reduced movement.
  6. Loss of Appetite: Decreased or complete lack of interest in eating.
  7. Swollen Eyes: Inflammation or puffiness around the eyes.
  8. Bubble Nests: Bubbles forming in the nose or mouth during breathing.


  1. Isolate the Turtle: If you suspect a respiratory infection, isolate the affected turtle from other turtles to prevent potential transmission.
  2. Veterinary Examination: Take the turtle to a qualified reptile veterinarian experienced in treating turtles. They can diagnose the infection through physical examination and may perform diagnostic tests like X-rays or swabs to identify the specific pathogen causing the infection.
  3. Medication: The veterinarian may prescribe antibiotics or antifungal medications depending on the cause of the infection. It’s crucial to follow the prescribed dosage and complete the full course of treatment.
  4. Supportive Care: Provide a warm and humid environment for the turtle to aid in the healing process. You can create a “sick bay” with an appropriate basking spot and a shallow water dish for easy access to drinking.
  5. Encourage Hydration: Ensure the turtle stays hydrated by offering clean water or bathing it in a shallow container regularly.
  6. Improved Husbandry: Review the turtle’s enclosure and make necessary adjustments to maintain proper temperature, humidity, and clean water conditions.
  7. Nutrition: Offer a balanced and varied diet to boost the turtle’s immune system.

  1. Shell Erosion
  2. Eye Infections
  3. Herpesvirus
  4. Upper Respiratory Tract Disease (URTD)
  5. Fibropapillomatosis (FP)
  6. Salmonella Infection
  7. Ranavirus
  8. Mycoplasmosis
  9. Shell Pyramiding
  10. Necrotic Dermatitis
  11. Cloacal Prolapse
  12. Septicemia
  13. Stomatitis
  14. Parasitic Infections (e.g., worms, flukes)
  15. Traumatic Injuries
  16. Ear Abscesses
  17. Yellow-bellied Turtle Disease
  18. Tick Infestations
  19. Plastron Infections
  20. Soft-shell Syndrome
  21. Bacterial Shell Disease
  22. Pneumonia
  23. Conjunctivitis
  24. Abscesses
  25. Shell Cracks/Fractures
  26. Gastrointestinal Blockages
  27. Ulcerative Shell Disease (USD)
  28. Septic Arthritis
  29. Conjunctival Edema Syndrome (CES)
  30. Papilloma
  31. Gastric Eversion
  32. Hemorrhagic Disease
  33. Lymphoid Organ Adenocarcinoma
  34. Cloacal Obstructions
  35. Parasitic Skin Infections
  36. Hematological Disorders
  37. Fungal Infections
  38. Egg Binding
  39. Epidermal Hyperkeratosis
  40. Pneumonia/Upper Respiratory Infections (URI)
  41. Shell Necrosis
  42. Osteomyelitis
  43. Prolapse of Cloacal Sacs
  44. Hypovitaminosis A
  45. Hereditary Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD)
  46. Hemangiosarcoma
  47. Ocular Tumors
  48. Septicemia
  49. Renal Failure
  50. Cloacitis
  51. Cutaneous Abscesses
  52. Pseudomonas Infections
  53. Pyramiding
  54. Traumatic Amputations
  55. Vitamin D Deficiency
  56. Cardiovascular Disease
  57. Testicular Tumors
  58. Endoparasitic Infections (e.g., nematodes)
  59. Shell Deformities
  60. Cloacal Papillomas
  61. Dermatomycosis
  62. Malnutrition
  63. Hereditary Tumors
  64. Pneumonitis
  65. Skin Erosions
  66. Conjunctival Prolapse
  67. Malformed Eggs
  68. Pancreatic Disease
  69. Otitis Media
  70. Fibrosarcoma
  71. Enteritis
  72. Kidney Infections
  73. Oral Lesions
  74. Gastric Foreign Bodies
  75. Testicular Dermatitis
  76. Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD)
  77. Enteritis
  78. Kidney Disease
  79. Esophageal Obstructions
  80. Shell Lesions
  81. Dental Disease
  82. Uterine Prolapse
  83. Bacterial Pneumonia
  84. Corneal Disease
  85. Gout
  86. Parasitic Pneumonia
  87. Paraphimosis
  88. Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  89. Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  90. Aspergillosis
  91. Pododermatitis (Bumblefoot)
  92. Fibroma
  93. Necrotizing Fasciitis
  94. Colitis
  95. Retained Egg Fragments
  96. Conjunctivitis
  97. Fatty Liver Disease
  98. Lymphoid Tumors